To respond to the very first pair of research concerns about the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we utilized episode-level information ( e.g., percentages of episodes containing same-sex intimate behavior and containing speak about intercourse associated with nonheterosexuals) and chi-square analyses to look at between-group differences by using these nominal information. When it comes to second pair of research concerns, we utilized just those implies that included nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their frequency across 2-minute periods ( ag e.g., quantity of intervals each hour of program time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we utilized t-tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to try team distinctions. Significant omnibus F-tests had been followed up with post hoc comparisons utilizing Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to spot significant distinctions across teams.
Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Information
About one out of six programs inside our examples contained any content that is sexualbehavior or talk) associated with nonheterosexuals. Dining Table 1 shows the portion of demonstrates contained any same-sex behavior that is sexual any intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals by system genres, by form of community, and also by time of day aired. The 11 stations were classified into one of three categories: commercial broadcast (which included the three major networks ABC, CBS, and NBC as well as Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music entertainment (which included BET and MTV), and premium cable movie (which included Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime) for network type. Pertaining to time of broadcast, were classified as prime-time day.
Dining Table 1
Note: Within variety of community and time of day aired, percentages within the column that is same don’t share subscripts vary at p dining Table 1 ). In many situations, there is a higher level of communication from a genre’s relative positioning for same-sex behavior that is sexual mention nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas. Furthermore, genres’ standings on these two factors had been fairly stable throughout the two tv periods.
Three genres had been regularly lower in both types of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which contained behavior that is intimate intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals in a choice of year), news publications . 3 Genres that had a tendency to own the best proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and film that is feature. Made-for-TV films and programs classified as вЂњotherвЂќ additionally had reasonably high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual nevertheless, both these groups included only only a few programs ), rendering it tough to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, although we consist of these second two genres within the tables, we usually do not emphasize the findings related to them.
Note: Within kind of system and time of day aired, means within the exact same line that do not share subscripts vary at p 1 For simplicity of presentation, we utilize the term вЂњnonheterosexualвЂќ to mention collectively to all or any people whose intimate orientation is certainly not solely heterosexual, including homosexual men, lesbians, and bisexuals of either intercourse.
2 one other behavior that is sexual had been utilized to fully capture all the kinds of intimate tasks that failed to end up in the categories specified flirting, kissing, intimate touching, sexual activity implied, and intercourse depicted including low-level intimate functions such as for instance leering to high-level intimate functions such as for example masturbation and bondage and control.
4 Because our examples consist of programs from both commercial broadcast and cable companies, we utilized a typical product quantity of 2-minute periods each hour of system time in the place of wide range of 2-minute periods per 1-hour show to evaluate the regularity of intimate behavior and speak about sex linked to nonheterosexuals. This makes up about the fact commercials significantly lessen the amount of system content on broadcast networks to about 22 two-minute periods in an one-hour system, whereas 1-hour cable programs routinely have about 30 two-minute intervals.